Functionality and Use Phase
   -Socially beneficial designs
   -Designs to reduce emisions/pollution/toxins
   -Designs for improved functionality
   -Designs to increase product lifespan/longevity
   -Designs to reduce energy consumption
   -Recycling and reduction of waste production
   -Designs to improve water usage
Socially beneficial designs
Alternative modes of transport for improved choice of mobility reduces dependency on high-environmental-impact products such as the car and affords improved mobility options for minority groups, such as the disabled.
An aid to reduce population growth helps keep the balance between population and resource availability and so slows environmental degradation, social exclusion and other problems.
Community ownership encourages group rather than individual ownership and so improves the efficiency of product usage.
Design for need A concept that emerged in the 1970s and was promoted by exponents such as the design academic Victor Papanek and by landmark exhibition at the Royal College of Art, London, in 1976. Design for need concentrates on designing for social needs rather than for creating 'lifestyle' products.
Emergency provisions/ distribution of clean, safe water products designed to reduce human mortality and disease.
Encourages recycling products designed to facilitate recycling.
Equal access for public services products to enable minority groups, such as the disabled, full access to public services, such as transport.
Hire rather than ownership products designed for hire rather than for personal ownership, receiving more efficient and economical use.
Equal access to information resources products to enable minority groups, such as the disabled, to gain access to information resources.
Reduction in noise/noise pollution products designed to minimize distress and disturbance caused by excessive noise.
Reduction of visual intrusion in the landscape products designed to minimize the visual impact of technological or manmade products.
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Designs to reduce emissions/pollution/toxins
Avoidance/reduction in emissions (to water) products whose production and use avoids or minimizes emissions of hazardous/toxic substances to water.
Avoidance/reduction in emissions/pollution (to air) products whose production and use avoids or minimizes emissions of hazardous/toxic substances to air including greenhouse gases, hydrocarbons, particulate matter and cancer-causing substances (carcinogens).
Avoidance/reduction of hazardous/toxic substances products that are safe for human use because they contain little or no hazardous or toxic substances. There are international and national lists of banned substances including chemicals and pesticides. Some companies produce their own lists, in addition to those substances on lists with which they legally have to comply. Safe for human use does not necessarily mean safe for plant and other wildlife.
Free of CFCs and HCFCs product generally associated with the use of refrigerants, that do not use either chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are greenhouse gases, or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which are greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting gases.
Zero emissions refers to vehicles powered with electric motors or with hydrogen fuel-cell power systems that do not produce exhaust emissions of greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane or oxides of nitrogen) or particulate matter (such as PM10s). A true zero emission electric vehicle (EV) is one that uses electricity generated from renewable power rather than fossil fuel or nuclear sources.
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Designs for improved functionality
Customizable describes a product that the consumer can alter to his/her own specification or configuration.
Dual function one product with two functions.
Improved ergonomics products that are easier and more comfortable to use.
Improved health and safety products that don't endanger health or safety or that promote better health.
Improved user-friendliness products that are easier to understand and more fun to use.
Improved user functionality products that serve their purpose better than previous designs.
Modular design/modularity products that can be configured in many ways to suit the user by changing he arrangement of individual modules. Modular design also offers the user the possibility of adding modules as needs require.
Multifunctional a product capable of more than two functions.
Multi-use space a space capable of being used for different types of functions.
Portable a product that is easily transported for use in different locations.
Safe, i.e., non-toxic and non-hazardous a product without adverse effects on human health
Upgradable/upgradability a product that is easy to upgrade by replacing old components/elements with new. This is especially important for technological products.
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Design to increase product lifespan/longevity
Design for easy of maintenance/
maintainability
products with food instructions and easy access to maintain or service parts that wear.
Durability products that are tough, owing to strong materials and high quality manufacturing, and so resistant to use and wear.
Ease of repair/repairability products easy to assemble/disassemble to repair worn or broken parts.
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Design to reduce energy consumption
Integrated or intelligent transport systems transport systems that permit a range of mobility products to be used to offer a choice of mobility paths for the user.
Energy conservation products designed to prevent loss of energy.
Energy efficiency products/buildings designed to use energy efficiently.
Energy neutral products/buildings that generate as much energy as they consume.
Fuel economy products that use less fossil fuel energy than an earlier generation of products and so cause reduced emissions to air over their lifetime.
Human-powered products products that need energy supplied by humans.
Hybrid power products that combine two or more power sources, for example, hybrid electric/petrol or fuel cell/electric cars.
Improved energy efficiency products with improved usage or output per unit of energy expended.
Low voltage products capable of operating on 12-volt or 24-volt electricity supply rather then higher voltages.
Natural lighting products that encourage the use of natural lighting (rather than consuming electricity).
Rechargeable (batteries) products that encourage repeat battery use by recharging form a mains or renewable power supply, and so reduce waste production.
Renewable power electricity generated form products that convert the energy of the sun, wind, water or geothermal heat from the earth's crust.
Solar power (passive) products that produce light or heat by absorbing the energy of the sun.
Solar power (generation) products that generate electricity by absorbing the energy of the sun. These typically include products equipped with photovoltaic panels.
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Recycling and reduction of waste products
Recyclable packaging/containers packaging and containers made of materials that can be recycled.
Reduction in use of consumables products that reduce the use of consumables such as paper, inks, batteries, oils and detergents.
Reusable packaging/containers packaging and containers that can be reused for repeat trips.
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Designs to improve water usage
Water conservation products that reduce water usage, and/or facilitate water collection.
Water generation (freshwater) products that generate fresh water from contaminated surface or ground water, seawater or water-saturated air.
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