Manufacturing/Making/Fabrication Phase
   -Production Process
   -Recycling and Reuse
Production Process
Avoidance of toxic/
hazardous substances
avoiding substances liable to damage human health and living ecosystems.
Bio-manufacturing using nature to help fabricate products in situ. For example, 'manufacturing' natural gourds by training them in special shapes for later use as packaging; growing plants to produce biopolymers (natural plastics).
Clean production systems are put in place to reduce the impact of manufacturing goods by minimizing the production of waste and emissions to land, air and water. Closed-loop recycling (see below) technologies are often incorporated into clean production.
Closed-loop recycling/production is the process of introducing waste streams back into the manufacturing process in a continuous cycle without loss of water from that cycle. The textile and chemical industries often recycle chemical compounds used in processing their end-products, resulting in cleaner production.
Cold fabrication/manufacturing methods that require no heat or pressure and hence reduce energy consumption and facilitate disassembly.
Design for assembly (DfA) is a method of rationalizing and standardizing parts to facilitate the fixing together of components during production or manufacture.
Design for disassembly (DfD) is a method of designing products to facilitate cost-effective, non-destructive breakdown of the component parts of a product at the end of its life so that they can be recycled and/or reused.
Efficient use of raw and manufactured materials reducing materials used and minimizing waste production.
Lightweight construction reducing materials used but maintaining strength.
Low-energy manufacturing/production
reducing the energy required to make components and/or products.
Reduced resource consumption reducing materials used, especially raw materials extracted from the environment.
Reduction in use of consumables reducing consumables used during the manufacturing process.
Reduction in materials usage efficient use of materials compared with conventional/traditional designs.
Reduction of production waste is achieved by more efficient designs and/or manufacturing processes.
Reusable buildings demountabe, modular buildings, which can be transported and reassembled in new locations.
Self-assembly the final assembly is done by the consumer, thereby saving energy in the fabrication process.
Simple, low-cost construction manufacturing with simple, inexpensive tooling and low-energy processes.
Zero waste production the elimination of waste from the production process.
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Recycling and Reuse
Designed for recyclability (DfR) is a design philosophy that tries to maximize positive environmental attributes of a product, such as ease of disassembly, recyclability, maintenance, reuse or refurbishment, without compromising the product's functionality and performance.
Design for recycling (DfR) considers the best methods to improve recycling of raw materials or components by facilitating assembly and disassembly, ensuring that materials are not mixed and appropriately labeling materials and components.
Materials labeling assists with improved identification of materials for recycling.
Materials recycled at source use of office, factory or domestic waste to make new products in situ.
Reuse of end-of-life components (remanufacturing) taking back worn-out or old components/products and refurbishing them to an 'as-new' standard for resale.
Reuse of materials reusing materials without changing their original state. By comparison, recycling involves some reorganization or partial destruction of the material followed by reconstitution.
Reuse of redundant components components formally manufactured for another use are re-employed in a new product.
Re-used objects any complete object reused in a new product.
Single material components components made of one material (a monomaterial component).
Use of ready-mades/ready-made components components made for one product reapplied to a new or different type of product.
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