Pre-Production Phase
   -Pre-Production
   -Pre-Production: Materials Selection
Pre-Production
Anti-fashion a design that avoids temporary, fashionable styles.
Anti-obsolescence a design that is easily repaired, maintained and upgraded so it is not made obsolete with changes in technology or taste
Dematerialization the process of converting products into services. A good example of dematerialization through timeshare of a product is a local community sharing a car 'pool' in which all individuals have the opportunity to use/hire a car when needed rather than own a car that stands idle for a large part of its life. Other examples include digital cameras where silver halide film is replaced by CCD chips, dematerializing part of the consumables cycle. Designing products used in the context of a dematerialized service may place unusual constraints on the design such as concentration on maintenance and longevity of parts.
Open access design design that allows other designers to see how software, hardware and other electronic products are coded and constructed.
Product take-back a system under which manufacturers agree to take back a product when it has reached the end of its useful life so that components and/or materials can be reused or recycled (see also Producer responsibility). <<< This can fundamentally change the essence of the design and engage the designer in examining design for assembly (DfA), disassembly (DfD) and remanufacture.
Reusable product a product that can be reused at the end of its initial lifespan for an identical, similar or new use.
Universal design the application of widely accepted practices, components, fixtures, meterials and technologies suitable for a wide range of end-uses.
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Pre-production: Materials selection
Abundant materials from the lithosphere/geosphere inorganic materials, such as stone, clay, minerals and metals form the earth's crust.
Biodegradable decomposed by the action of microbes such as bacteria and fungi.
Biopolymers plastics made from plants. Biopolymers can be composted and returned to nature.
Certified sources materials that are independently certified as originating from sustainably managed resources, from recycled materials or conforming to a national or international eco-label.
Compostable can be decomposed by microbes such as bacteria and fungi to release nutrients and organic matter.
Durable/extremely durable tough, strong materials that do not break or wear and survive the life of the product or well beyond.
Lightweight meterials with a high strenth-to-weight ratio.
Locally sourced materials are those in close proximity to the point of manufacturing or production.
Non-toxic/Non-hazardous not likely to cause loss of life or ill health to man and/or degradation of living ecosystems.
Reclaimed materials saved for reuse on demolition of the build environment.
Recyclable components components of products that can be used in a new product.
Recyclate material that ha been made into a new material comprising wholly or partially recycled materials. An alternative term is 'recycled feedstock'.
Recycled materials that have been processed (such as cleaned, graded, shredded, blended), then remanufactured
Recycled content materials that include some recycled and some virgin content. If a material has 100 per cent-recycled content, it is a recycled material.
Renewable a material that can be extracted from resources which absorb energy from the sun to synthesize or create matter. These resources include primary producers, such as plants and bacteria, and secondary producers, such as fish and mammals.
Single or mono-materials consist of pure materials rather than mixtures. This facilitates recycling.
Stewardship sourcing materials from certified sources and supply chain management.
Supply-chain management (green procurement) is the process of specifying that the good/materials of suppliers meet minimum environmental standards. The specification may be that the goods will come from certified sources (e.g. the Forest Stewardship Council, national or international eco-labels), carry recognized accreditation (e.g. ISO 14001, EMAS) or meet trade association standards (e.g. National Association of Paper Manufacturers' recycled-paper logo in the UK).
Sustainable/from sustainable sources materials that originate from managed resources which are forecast to last for a very long time and/or are renewable resources (see above).
Waste materials materials fabricated from production (factory) or consumer waste.
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